Research Ethics



Udayana University is a state university which is located in Bali, Indonesia. Its entire staff has to be involved in three main activities namely teaching, research and community services. In the area of research, the University has provided many grants that enable the academic staff to conduct researches that are useful for them, the faculties where they teach, the university and the community. The grants which are varied in terms of the availability of amount and schemes  are provided by either the university, the central government, or foreign institutions in the forms of funding and collaborative researches. As the variety of researches are developing and the collaborative researches are improving, the Rector of the Udayana University decided that there must be a set of research ethics published to protect the researchers and every element involved in the research projects from anything which is against the law and against the social norms. This ethics is also used as the guidance for the researchers so that they will know what they have to do legally and in accordance with the social norms.

The ethics published by the Udayana University will govern the researchers’ behavior in conducting their researches are as follows. Thus, before conducting the research, the researchers are obliged to read this ethics of conducting research which can be easily accessed by public.

  1. Researchers have the right to question the result of the review of their rejected research proposals. The request of the second review should be presented in the written form to the Head of Research and Community Centre of the Udayana University. The Head of the centre will assign another team to conduct the review. In this occasion, the researchers are invited to present their ideas.
  2. Researchers have to put the following items into consideration: (1) the qualification of the research staff to decide the payment, (2) the condition of the participants of the research participants in terms of their economic and social background to fulfill the research needs in terms of time availability and data reliability, (3) the area in which the research will be conducted to ensure that everybody involved is safe.
  3. Researchers are managed by The Research Centre which must attend to the complaints put forward by the researchers, research team, third parties, from the society or research misconduct.
  4. Researchers must be honest in communicating their researches in terms of presenting the data, the result, methods, and procedures, and publish the result of the research. The researchers should not deceive colleagues, research sponsors, or the public.
  5. Researchers must strive to avoid bias in experimental design, data analysis, data interpretation, peer review, personnel decisions, grant writing, expert testimony, and other aspects of research where objectivity is expected or required. They must avoid or minimize bias or self-deception and disclose personal or financial interests that may affect research.
  6. Researchers must keep their promises and agreements; act with sincerity; strive for consistency of thought and action.
  7. Researchers must avoid careless errors and negligence; carefully and critically examine their own work and the work of their peers. Keep good records of research activities, such as data collection, research design, and correspondence with agencies or journals.
  8. Researchers must share data, results, ideas, tools, resources. They must be open to criticism and new ideas.
  9. Researchers must honor patents, copyrights, and other forms of intellectual property. They must not use unpublished data, methods, or results without permission. They must give proper acknowledgement or credit for all contributions to research. They must not plagiarize.
  10. Researchers must protect confidential communications, such as papers or grants submitted for publication, personnel records, trade or military secrets, and patient records. They must obey the law that states which items can be shared with the other parties, both domestic and foreign.
  11. Researchers must publish the result of their research and compete to win the grants for advance research for the benefit of the society rather than keeping it for their own. They must avoid wasteful and duplicative publication.
  12. Researchers must help to educate, mentor, and advise students. They must promote their students ‘welfare and allow them to make their own decisions.
  13. Researchers must respect their colleagues and treat them fairly.
  14. Researchers must strive to promote social good and prevent or mitigate social harms through research, public education, and advocacy.
  15. Researchers must avoid discrimination against colleagues or students on the basis of sex, race, ethnicity, or other factors not related to scientific competence and integrity.
  16. Researchers must maintain and improve your own professional competence and expertise through lifelong education and learning; take steps to promote competence in science as a whole.
  17. Researchers must know and obey relevant laws and institutional and governmental policies.
  18. Researchers must show proper respect and care for animals when using them in research. They must not conduct unnecessary or poorly designed animal experiments.
  19. Researchers, when conducting research on human subjects, must minimize harms and risks and maximize benefits; respect human dignity, privacy, and autonomy; take special precautions with vulnerable populations; and strive to distribute the benefits and burdens of research fairly.
  20. Researchers have to fulfill their obligation to submit the report of their research in accordance with the schedule.

Any researcher who violates these ethics will be sanctioned by annulling his/her research project and return the whole fund he/she receives.